There was confusion over whether "mental disease or defect" should be interpreted to mean only psychosis, or any of the myriad of more minor disorders defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). I.) set out a model insanity defense statute intended, like Durham, to soften the M'Naughten standard and allow for the introduction of medical and psychiatric evidence. The courts said that due process and equal-protection concerns required that those found not guilty but confined due to mental illness had the right to periodic reassessment of their mental health status and dangerousness. President Ronald Reagan, a secret service agent, a Washington police officer, and Reagan's press secretary James Brady.
Critics worried that defendants would begin to use alcoholism or other disorders whose only symptoms were antisocial behavior as excuses for their crimes. The standard in effect consolidates the principles of the M'Naughten "right and wrong" rule and the "irresistible impulse" test. If the evaluations did not find justification for continued confinement, the defendants would be released. Hinckley claimed that he was trying to impress the actress Jodie Foster, with whom he was infatuated. I am Romeo and she is Juliet." A jury acquitted Hinckley of 13 assault, murder, and weapons counts, finding him not guilty by reason of insanity.
It was criticized in both legal and psychiatric circles as rigid and antiquated.Dan Quayle claimed that the insanity defense "pampered criminals," allowing them to kill "with impunity." This hyperbolic testimony was countered by psychiatric and legal professionals who called for the modification, rather than the total abolition, of the insanity defense, and ultimately the resulting legislation -- the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 -- was somewhat of a compromise. In effect, Congress returned to the 19th century "right/wrong" standard, echoing Queen Victoria's response to the M'Naughten acquittal.Congress also adopted a number of provisions that toughened procedural barriers to a successful insanity defense.In 1998, 25 states plus the District of Columbia still used versions of the M'Naughten rule to test for legal insanity.: "IRRESISTIBLE IMPULSE" One of the major criticisms of the M'Naughten rule is that, in its focus on the cognitive ability to know right from wrong, it fails to take into consideration the issue of control.