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The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials.
China's use in 2010 of export restrictions for REEs as a political instrument against Japan (over tensions in the East China Sea) further aggravated these concerns (Buijs and Sievers 2011a, 2011b).
In recent years, concerns about supply security have led to a resurgence of interest in mineral and metal availability, particularly in highly import-dependent industrialised countries such as Germany, Japan, and the United States.The rapidly increasing number of studies published in this field clearly reflects this trend (e.g. After a period of relatively low raw-material prices following the end of the Cold War (Humphreys 1995), the rise of China as the World's major producer and consumer of minerals, metals and energy has led to a tightening of global markets, and concomitant fears of inadequate supply (Buijs and Sievers 2011a, 2011b).Ultimately, the trigger for the first new wave of government studies into non-fuel raw materials supply (NRC 2007, EU Commission 2010) was the reduction of Chinese export quotas for rare earth elements (REEs) by ~25 % from 2007 to 2009 (Tse 2011).Rather, it implies that new assessments are required.While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain.