Excavations reveal a complex assemblage of channel and floodplain deposits.Single grain quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements provide the most accurate age estimates for the youngest sediments, but in older deposits the OSL signal from some grains is saturated.A different luminescence signal from quartz, thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL), can date these older deposits.OSL and TT-OSL results are combined to provide a chronology for the site.Iris Kaingu has revealed that she has not been dating for over four years because she finds most Zambian men not genuine.And Iris who became famous in 2012 when her sex tape leaked and went viral on the internet says her dream is to marry Prince Harry.Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful.The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models.
A conceptual model for site formation provides the basis for improved interpretation of the generation, preservation, and visibility of the Kalambo archaeological record.
The Stone Age site of Kalambo Falls, northern Zambia, has yielded a rich artefact record from dominantly fluvial deposits, but its significance has been restricted by uncertainties over site formation processes and a limited chronology.
Our new investigations in the centre of the Kalambo Basin have used luminescence to provide a chronology and have provided key insights into the geomorphological and sedimentological processes involved in site formation.
The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.
Fluvial deposits can provide excellent archives of early hominin activity but may be complex to interpret, especially without extensive geochronology.